Monday, December 10, 2007

Language Disabilities

Language Disabilities
Definition: Language disorder – a child has difficulties with comprehension and or verbal/oral or written communication. It may or may not be a direct result of something neurological, physical or psychological in nature. A Speech disorder is when a student exhibits articulation difficulties and or impairment that can be a direct result of neurological, physical or psychological factors. Voice fluency is usually missing. Language delays include lack of understanding, comprehension and the ability to relay thoughts.
IDEA – Speech and Language impairment – communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment or a voice impairment which adversely affects a child's educational performance.
ASLHA – an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts of verbal, nonverbal and graphic symbols systems. A communication disorder may be evident in the processes of hearing, language, and/or speech.
Articulation disorders – errors in the production of speech sounds, including omissions, substitutions, and distortions
Fluency disorders – difficulties with the rhythm and timing of speech including stuttering and cluttering
Voice disorders – problems with the quality or use of one's voice that results from disorders of the larynx. Including phonation disorders ( breathiness, hoarseness, huskiness and straining) and resonance disorders ( hypernasality- too many sounds and hyponasality – too few sounds) .
Phonological disorder – abnormal organization of speech production or perception. The child had the ability to make the correct sound and can do so in certain instances, but fails to make the correct sounds at other times.
Apraxia of speech – child is unable to coordinate what to say and the motor movement used to say it.
Morphological disorder – child uses fewer grammatical rules and produces more grammatical error than same-age peers.
Semantic disorders – poor vocabulary development, inappropriate use of word meanings, and or inability to comprehend word meanings.
Syntactical deficits – difficulty in acquiring the rules that govern word order and other other aspect of of grammar.
Pragmatic difficulties – problems with understanding language in different social contexts.
Central Auditory Precessing Disorder – problem in processing of sound not attributed to hearing loss or intellectual capacity.
Observable Characteristic of expressive language disorders
uses incorrect grammar or syntax
lacks specificity
frequently hesitates
jumps from topic to topic
has limited use of vocabulary
has trouble finding the right word to communicate meaning
uses social language poorly
is afraid to ask questions, does not know what questions to ask, or does not know how to ask a question
repeats same information again and again in a conversation
has difficulty discussing abstract, temporal or spatial concepts
often does not provide enough information to the listener
Observable Characteristic of receptive language disorders
does not respond to questions appropriately
cannot think abstractly or comprehend abstractions as idioms
cannot retain information presented verbally
had difficulty following oral directions
cannot detect breakdowns in communication
misses parts of material presented verbally, particularity less concrete words such as articles and auxiliary verbs and tense markers.
cannot recall sequences if ideas presents orally
may confuse the sound of letters that are similar, or reverse the order of sounds of syllables in words
has difficulty comprehending concepts showing quantity, function, comparative size, and temporal and spatial relationships
has difficulty comprehending compound and complex sentences.
Reduce unnecessary class room noise
be near the student, make eye contact when giving verbal instructions and ask the student to repeat the instructions
provide a private, quiet place for work/play
speak slowly and clearly
provide visual cues – hand held story boards or wall charts with words and picture
model correct speech patterns
capitalize on the student's strengths as much as possible
be patient and give time for both speaking and responding.
make silly story cards and talk together with the child about why the story is silly
speak to the student naturally and engage in ordinary conversation often.

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